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北外网课@你,请查收2018年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)答案

2017-12-25 11:11:47 来源:北外网课

2018年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose thebest word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

Why do people read negativeInternet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Becausehumans have an inherent need to __1__ uncertainty, according to a recent studyin Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is sostrong that people will __2__ to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clearthe answer will __3__.

In a series of four experiments,behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School ofBusiness tested. Student’s willingness to __4__ themselves to unpleasantstimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one __5__ each participantwas shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previousexperiment. The twist? Half of the pens would __6__ an electric shock whenclicked.

Twenty-seven students were toldwhich pens were electrified, another twenty-seven were told only that some wereelectrified __7__ left alone in the room, the students who did not knowwhich ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than thestudents who knew what would __8__ subsequent experiments reproduced, thiseffect with other stimuli __9__ the sound of finger nails on a chalkboardand photographs of disgusting insects.

The drive to __10__ is deeplyrooted in humans. Much the same as the basic drives for __11__ or shelter,says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago Curiosity is oftenconsidered a good instinct-it can __12__ New Scientific advances, forinstance-but sometimes such __13__ can backfire, the insight thatcuriosity can drive you to do __14__ things is a profound one.

Unhealthy curiosity is possibleto __15__ , however, in a final experiment, participants who wereencouraged to __16__ how they would feel after viewing an unpleasantpicture were less likely to __17__ to see such an image. These results suggestthat imagining the __18__ of following through on one’s curiosity ahead oftime can help determine __19__ it is worth the endeavor.” Thinking aboutlong-term __20__ is key to reducing the possible negative effects ofcuriosity. He says “in other words, don’t read online comments”.

1.[A] protect       [B]resolve        [C]discuss            [D] ignore

2.[A]refuse        [B]wait           [C]regret              [D] seek

3.[A]hurt          [B]last             [C]mislead            [D] rise

4.[A]alert         [B]tie              [C]treat               [D] expose

5.[A]message      [B] review         [C]trial               [D] concept

6. [A]remove              [B]weaken            [C]interrupt             [D] deliver

7. [A] when             [B]if                  [C]though                [D] unless

8. [A]continue             [B]happen            [C]disappear            [D] change

9. [A] ratherthan          [B] regardless of   [C] suchas               [D] owing to

10. [A] discover         [B]forgive            [C]forget                     [D] disagree

11. [A] pay              [B]marriage          [C]schooling             [D] food

12. [A] lead to            [B]rest on            [C] learn from            [D] begin with

13. [A] withdrawal       [B] persistence       [C] inquiry               [D]diligence

14. [A]self-reliant             [B] self-destructive

[C]self-evident          [D]self-deceptive

15. [A] define           [B] resist             [C]replace              [D] trace

16. [A]overlook          [B]predict           [C]design                [D] conceal

17. [A] remember       [B]  promise        [C]choose                [D] pretend

18. [A] relief            [B] plan                [C] duty                   [D] outcome

19. [A] why            [B] whether           [C] where               [D] how

20. [A] consequences   [B] investments     [C] strategies           [D] limitations

SectionII  Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark youranswers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as thoughhe has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is ateacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of booksand tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it becomeaccepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of theUnited States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?

As Koziatek knows, there islearning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcingstudents to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations ofdiscarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

But he’s also found a kind ofinsidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark ofinferiority. Schools in the family of vocational education “have thatstereotype...that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.

On one hand, that viewpoint is alogical product of America’s evolution. Manufacturing is not the economicengine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered tohigh school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the newprinciple. We want more for our kids, and rightfully so.

But the headlong push intobachelor’s degrees for all – and the subtle devaluing of anything less – missesan important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy need. Yes, abachelor’s degree opens more doors. But even now, 54 percent of the jobs in thecountry are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

In other words, at a time when theworking class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that theopportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution isstaring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workerswho need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them. Koziatek’s Manchesterschool of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call.When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’sdiversity of gifts.

21.A broken bike chainis mentioned to show students’ lack of _____.

[A] practical ability

[B] academic training

[C] pioneering spirit

[D] mechanical memorization

22. There exists theprejudice that vocational education is for kids who_____.

[A] have a stereotyped mind

[B] have no career motivation

[C] are not academically successful

[D] are financially disadvantaged

23. We can infer fromParagraph 5 that high school graduates_____.

[A] used to have big financialconcerns

[B] used to have more jobopportunities

[C] are reluctant to work inmanufacturing

[D] are entitled to moreeducational privileges

24. The headlong pushinto bachelor‘s degrees for all_____.

[A] helps create a lot ofmiddle-skill jobs

[B] may narrow the gap inworking-class jobs

[C] is expected to yield abetter-trained workforce

[D] indicates the overvaluing ofhigher education

25. The author‘s attitudetoward Koziatek’s school can be described as_____.

[A] supportive

[B] tolerant

[C] disappointed

[D] cautious

Text 2

While fossil fuels — still generateroughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it’s clearer than ever thatthe future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar. The move torenewables is picking up momentum around the world: They now account for morethan half of new power sources going on line.

Some growth stems from a commitmentby governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. Butincreasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables, especiallywind and solar. The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the costof wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.

In many parts of the worldrenewable energy is already a principal energy source. In Scotland, for example,wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. Whilethe rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the UnitedStates is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March, for the first time, windand solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated inthe US, reported the US Energy Information Administration.

President Trump has underlined fossilfuels — especially coal — as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech inIowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source. But that messagedid not play well with many in Iowa, where wind turbines dot the fields andprovide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation — and where techgiants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energyto power their data centers.

The question “What happens when thewind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?” has provided a quick put-down forskeptics. But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making theirability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

The advance is driven in part byvehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electricvehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massiveinvestment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

While there’s a long way to go, thetrend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sourcesappears to be speeding up — perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect inslowing climate change. What Washington does — or doesn’t do — to promotealternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift inthought.

26. The word “plummeting” (Line 3, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to______.

[A] stabilizing

[B] changing

[C] falling

[D] rising

27. According toParagraph 3, the use of renewable energy in America______.

[A] is progressing notably

[B] is as extensive as in Europe

[C] faces many challenges

[D] has proved to be impractical

28. It can be learnedthat in Iowa,______.

[A] wind is a widely used energysource

[B] wind energy has replaced fossilfuels

[C] tech giants are investing inclean energy

[D] there is a shortage of cleanenergy supply

29. Which of thefollowing is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?

[A] Its application has boostedbattery storage.

[B] It is commonly used in carmanufacturing.

[C] Its continuous supply isbecoming a reality.

[D] Its sustainable exploitationwill remain difficult.

30. It can be inferredfrom the last paragraph that renewable energy______.

[A] will bring the USA closer toother countries.

[B] will accelerate globalenvironmental change.

[C] is not really encouraged by theUSA government.

[D] is not competitive enough withregard to its cost.

Text 3

The power and ambition of thegiants of the digital economy is astonishing-Amazon  has justannounced  the  purchase  of the upmarket  grocery chain  Whole Foods  for $l3.5bn, but two years  ago Facebook  paid  even  more  than that  toacquire  the  WhatsApp   messaging  service,which  doesn’t  have  any  physical product  at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web ofits users’ friendships and social lives.

Facebook promised the Europeancommission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities,but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through. Even withoutknowing what was  in  the messages, the knowledge  of  whosent them  and to  whom  was  enormously revealing  and still could be. What political journalist, what party whip,would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Therea May’senemies are currently plotting? It may be that the value of Whole Foods toAmazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customershave purchased what.

Competition lawappears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power. But it isclumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of Change withinthe digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied itmay have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power.But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presentlyinterpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is notobvious when the users of these services don‘t pay for them. The users of theirServices are not their customers. That would be the people who buy advertisingfrom them-and Facebook and Google, the two virtual giants, dominate digitaladvertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.

The product they‘re selling is data,and we, the users, convert our lives to date for the benefit of the digitalgiants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew theproduce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital livesyield. Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmailkeeps the spamme out of our inboxes. It doesn’t feel like a human or democraticrelationship, even if both sides benefit.

31. According toParagraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its _____.

[A] digital products

[B] user information

[C] physical assets

[D] quality service

32. Linking phone numbersto Facebook identities may _____.

[A] worsen political disputes

[B] mess up customer records

[C] pose a risk to Facebook users

[D] mislead the European commission

33. According to theauthor, competition law _____.

[A] should sever the new marketpowers

[B] may worsen the economicimbalance

[C] should not provide just onelegal solution

[D] cannot keep pace with thechanging market

34. Competition law as presentlyinterpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because_______.

[A] they are not defined ascustomers

[B] they are not financiallyreliable

[C] the services are generallydigital

[D] the services are paid for byadvertisers

35. The ants analogy isused to illustrate_______.

[A] a win-win business modelbetween digital giants

[B] a typical competition patternamong digital giants

[C] the benefits provided fordigital giants ’customers

[D] the relationship betweendigital giants and their users

Text 4

To combat the trap of putting apremium on being busy, Cal Newport, author of Deep WorkRules for Focused Success in a DistractedWorld, recommends building a habit of “deep work” — the ability to focuswithout distraction.

There are a number of approaches tomastering the art of deep work — be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specifictask; developing a daily ritual; or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizingmoment of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach, thekey is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.

Newport also recommends “deepscheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time.“At any given point, I should have deep work scheduled for roughly the next mouth.Once on the calendar, I protect this time like I would a doctor’s appointmentor important meeting”, he writes.

Another approach to getting moredone in less time is to rethink how you priorities your day – in particular howwe craft our to-do lists. Tim Harford, author of Messy: The Power of Disorderto Transform Our Lives, points to a study in the early 1980s that dividedundergraduates into two groups: some were advised to set out monthly goals andstudy activities; others were told to plan activities and goals in much moredetail, day by day.

While the researchers assumed thatthe well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to theexecution of tasks, they were wrong: the detailed daily plans demotivatedstudents. Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the dailyto-do list ineffective, while leaving room for improvisation in such a list canreap the best results.

In order to make the most of ourfocus and energy, we also need to embrace downtime, or as Newport suggests, “belazy”.

“Idleness is not just a vacation,an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to the brain as vitamin D is tothe body …” [idleness]is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,”he argues.

Srini Pillay, an assistantprofessor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, believes thiscounterintuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the mayour brains operate. When our brains switch between being focused and unfocusedon a task, they tend to be more efficient.

“What people don’t realise is thatin order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocuscircuits in their brain,” says Pillay.

36. The key to masteringthe art of deep work is to ______.

[A] keep to your focus time

[B] list your immediate tasks

[C] make specific daily plans

[D] seize every minute to work

37. The study in theearly 1980s cited by Harford shows that______.

[A] distractions may actuallyincrease efficiency.

[B] daily schedules are indispensableto studying

[C] students are hardly motivatedby monthly goals

[D] detailed plans may not be asfruitful as expected

38. According to Newport, idleness is ______.

[A] a desirable mental state forbusy people

[B] a major contributor to physicalhealth

[C] an effective way to save timeand energy

[D] an essential factor inaccomplishing any work

39. Pillay believes thatour brains’ shift between being focused and unfocused______.

[A] can result in psychologicalwell-being

[B] can bring about greaterefficiency

[C] is aimed at better balance inwork

[D] is driven by task urgency

40. This text is mainlyabout ______.

[A] ways to relieve the tension ofbusy life

[B] approaches to getting more donein less time

[C] the key to eliminatingdistractions

[D] the cause of the lack of focustime

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and answerthe questions by choosing the most suitable subtitles from the list A-G foreach numbered paragraph (41-45). There are two extra subtitles which you do notneed to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

A. Just say it

B. Be present

C. Pay a uniquecompliment

D. Name, places, things

E. Find the “me too”s

F. Skip the small talk

G. Ask for an opinion

Five ways to make conversation withanyone

Conversations are links, whichmeans when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed andevery conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.

You meet new people every day: thegrocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at thedoor. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.

Here are five simple ways that youcan make the first move and start a conversation with strangers.

41. _____________________

Suppose you are in a room withsomeone you don’t know and something within you says “I want to talk with thisperson”-this is something that mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to saysomething-the first word –but it just won’t come out, it feels like it is stucksomewhere. I know the feeling and here is my advice: just get it out.

Just think: what is the worst thatcould happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!

I truly believe that once you getthat first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: “Hi”,“Hey”or“Hello”- do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can,put on a big smile and say “Hi”.

42. _________________

It is a problem all of us face; youhave limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want tomake this talk memorable.

Honestly, if we got stuck in theresult of “hi”, “hello”, ”how are you?” and “what is going on ?”, you will failto give the initial jolt to the conversation that can make it so memorable.

So don’t be afraid to ask morepersonal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people arewilling to share if you just ask.

43. __________________

When you meet a person for the first time,make an effort to find the things which you and  that person have in common so thatyou can build the conversation from that point.

When you start conversationfrom there and then move outwards, you'll find all of a sudden that theconversation becomes a lot easier.

44. ____________________

Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly.

Mike eye contact.Trust me, eye contact is where all the magic happens. When you make eye contact,

you can feel the conversation.

45. ____________________

You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward!

So, remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to, the places they want to go, the things they like, the things they hatewhatever you talk about.

When you remember such things you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing. So they feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone.

Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!

Section III  Translation

46. Directions:

Translate the following text intoChinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

A fifth grader gets a homeworkassignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations. Heticks “astronaut”, but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it aswell. The boy is convinced that if he reads enough, he can explore as many careerpaths as he likes. And so he reads everything from encyclopedias to sciencefiction novels. He reads so passionately that his parents have to institute a“no reading policy” at the dinner table.

That boy was Bill Gates, and hehasn’t stopped reading yet — not even after becoming one of the most successfulpeople on the planet. Nowadays, his reading material has changed from sciencefiction and reference books recently, he revealed that he reads at least 50nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction titles because they explainhow the world works. “Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge,” Gates says.

Section IV  Writing

Part A

47. Directions: Suppose you have tocancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit professor Smith, writehim an email to

1) apologize and explain thesituation and suggest a future meeting.

2) You should write about 100 wordson the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name; Use “LiMing” instead.

Do not write your address (10points).

Part  B

48. Directions: Write an essaybased on the chart below. In your writing, you should

1) interpret the chart, and

2) give your comments

You should write about 150 words onthe ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)


2017年某市消费者选择餐厅时的关注因素

【参考答案】

Section I   Use of English

1. resolve  2. seek  3. hurt   4. expose   5. trail  6. deliver   7. when  

8. happen   9. such as  10. discover   11. food   12. lead to  13. inquiry

14. self-destructive   15. resist  16. predict   17. choose   18. outcome

19. whether   20. consequences

Section II   ReadingComprehension

Part A

Text 1

21. practicalability

22. arenot academically successful

23. usedto have more job opportunities

24. indicatesthe overvaluing of higher education

25. supportive

Text 2

26. failing

27. isprogressing notably

28. windis a widely used energy source

29. Itscontinuous supply is becoming a reality

30. isnot really encouraged by the US government

Text 3

31. userinformation

32. posea risk to Facebook users

33. cannot keep pace withthe changing market

34. theservices are paid for by advertisers

35. therelationship between digital giants and their users

Text 4

36. keepto your focus time

37. detailedplans may not be as fruitful as expected

38. anessential factor in accomplishing any work

39. canbring about greater efficiency

40. approachesto getting more done in less time

Part B

41. [A]Just say it

42. [G]Ask for an opinion

43. [E]Find the “me too”s

44. [B]Be present

45. [D]Name, places, things

SectionIII Translation

一名五年级的学生的家庭作业要求他从一系列的职业中选出他未来的职业道路。他选择了“宇航员”,但很快又将“科学家”加入名单,也选了这一职业。这个男孩确信如果他读的书足够多,他就能想探索多少条职业道路,就探索多少条。因此他读书——从百科全书读到科幻小说。他如此狂热地阅读以致于他的父母不得不制定一条吃饭时“不能读书”的规矩。这个男孩就是比尔·盖茨,他从未停止过阅读——即便在他成为全球最成功人士之后也如此。今天,比尔盖茨的读物已经不再是科幻小说和参考书目:最近,他表示自己每年至少阅读50本非虚构读物.盖茨选择读非虚构类图书,因为这些书解释了世界是如何运作的。“每本书都开辟了探索新知识的道路,”比尔盖茨说。

Section IV  Writing

51. [参考范文]

DearProfessor Smith,

How have you been recently? I amexceedingly sorry to tell you that although I have promised to visit you thisFriday, I have to cancel my travel plan because of the following reason.

Two days ago, I suddenly acceptedthe notice that there would be an academic meeting this Friday night in ourdepartment and everyone was asked to attend. I know that my changing plan hasdefinitely caused some inconvenience to you. I am so sorry for my failing tokeep the promise of visiting you. Therefore, in order to make up this situation,I wonder if you could give me another chance and spare some time to meet menext Monday.

I am so sorry for any inconveniencecaused by me. Hope you can accept my apology and arrange a new time for me tovisit you. I am looking forward to your reply.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

52. [参考范文]

Emerging from the clearly depicted pie chart is thedistribution of focusing factors of citizens in a city when choosing arestaurant in 2017, consisting of 4 parts, which are features, service,environment, price and other factors. Among them, the proportion of service,environment, price and other factors is 26.8%, 23.8%, 8.4% and 4.7%respectively. By contrast, the factor of focusing on features of the restaurantis in the lead, accounting for 36.3%.

What has triggered this phenomenon?To begin with, with the fast development of national economy and personalwealth, people in China have stepped into an era of enjoying life, transformingtraditional pattern of living. Therefore, such a great proportion of citizensare more likely to focus on the features of a restaurant, instead of onlyconcentrating on the price. Moreover, in a society where living standard ishighly advocated, citizens in mounting numbers in China, shrugging off theirformer habit of focusing on lower price, gradually find the service andenvironment of a restaurant is an essential factor. According to a surveyconducted by China Research Center, up to 87% Chinese people prefer to choose acomfortable and fashionable restaurant when they go out for eating.

Taking into account what has beenargued so far, I am inclined to think about the current situation is normal. Inview of the analysis above, it can be predicted that the trend will continue inthe future. Accordingly, it is of no necessity for the public to regard it withtoo much consideration.



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